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A cowboy in Monument Valley, Arizona

Arizona

Arizona’s Fascinating Culture and Historical Background

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    Arizona

From ancient American Indian tribes to cowboys in the Wild West, Arizona has deep roots.

The southwestern state of Arizona is an area rich in history and cultural influences. Thousands of years before the Wild West, when saber-toothed cats and wooly mammoths roamed the land, many American Indians called Arizona home, and they have continued to live on these lands up to this day. The area’s intriguing history also includes cowboys, pioneers and Spanish missionaries who built artfully designed missions. Immerse yourself in the fascinating history of Arizona when you visit these historical sites and museums.

Cultural Influences

More than 22 active American Indian tribes have called Arizona home for the past 12,000 years. Visit their tribal lands and museums and discover the ancestral Puebloan, Hohokam, Mogollon and the Patayan people as you learn about the unique spiritual and cultural heritage that is an integral part of Arizona’s history.

Starting in the 1520s, Arizona experienced a wave of Spanish explorers who were looking for lands to establish a chain of missions, presidios, pueblos and ranchos. Spanish settlers embarked on a journey that would forever change the history of Arizona when they built along the Santa Cruz River area and claimed the land as their own. The Spanish continued to own this land until the Mexican-American War ended in 1848 and the USA gained control. Spanish traditions continue to be an important influence on Arizona’s culture.

The late 1840s saw the rise of the Wild West and cowboy culture. Explore Tombstone for a look at the famous gunfight at the O.K. Corral. Head to Williams, where you’ll find historic saloons, as well as former brothels and opium dens. Be sure to attend a rodeo during your visit to the state to see present-day cowboys show off their skills.

Navajo women weaving an intricate rug

Navajo women weaving an intricate rug
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Historic Sites

The best way to immerse yourself in Arizona’s culture and history is to visit its historic sites. Stop in the Casa Malpaís Archaeological Park, located in Springerville, where ancient people once lived but mysteriously disappeared around 1,400 A.D. Here, you’ll see an astronomical calendar, ancient stairways, rock art and Kivas (large circular rooms located underground that were used for rituals and ceremonies). Next, explore the Navajo National Monument, located within the northwest portion of the Navajo Nation territory. Walk through the site and see well-preserved cliff dwellings made by ancestral Puebloan people. Finally, head to the Mission San Xavier del Bac, located about 16 kilometers south of Tucson. The architectural beauty of this white adobe church will take your breath away.

The beautiful architecture of Mission San Xavier del Bac

The beautiful architecture of Mission San Xavier del Bac
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Museums

Plan a trip to a local museum to see art and artifacts while immersing yourself in Arizona’s deep historical roots. The Heard Museum in Phoenix is a notable stop. You’ll learn about the area’s different cultures and American Indian tribes through their interactive exhibits, live performances and contemporary art. A visit to the O.K. Corral will put you in the center of a live reenactment of the famous shoot-out between Wyatt Earp, Doc Holliday and the Clanton-McLaury gang. You’ll also be able to walk through the historic exhibits and try your hand at gemstone mining. The Douglas Mansion at Jerome State Historic Park displays hundreds of photographs, artifacts, video presentations and minerals that date back to the early 1900s, when the mansion was used as a hotel for mining officials and investors.

Hopi dancers sharing their heritage at the Heard Museum

Hopi dancers sharing their heritage at the Heard Museum
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Getting Here

International flights land at both the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX) and the Tucson International Airport (TUS). From here, you can rent a car or car service to take you wherever you need to go.